Root Stocks

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Root Stocks for Grafting and Budding
Rootstick Comparisons @ Dave Wilson Nursery

It seems to me that the most important consideration in root stocks is adaptability to local soils. Does the root stock perform well in calcareous soils?

Root Stocks for Apple

Both apples and pears are considered to belong to the ROSACEAE family, Pyrus genus, thus should be graftable on the same stock.

Apples do not graft well on quince, need interstock such as Winter banana, compatible with both apples & pears. If you graft a compatible pear such as Doyenne Du Comice onto quince as an intergraft, you can then graft any pear variety onto that. For apples, the recommended intergraft is the variety Winter Banana.

See Apple Root Fact Sheet (Ontario) a lot of detail.

Root Stock Comparisions

M 107

– 60-70% well anchored & deep rooted, susceptible to collar rot

M 7

– popular & efficient

M 111

– 75%, more efficient than Red Delicious stock. Resistant to collar rot. Popular [See]

Budagovsky 118 (B 118)

A vigorous, semi-dwarf rootstock that produces trees roughly the same size as those grown on EMLA 111 roots. B 118 is from the same Russian program that created Budagovsky 9
(B 9). It is extremely cold hardy, well anchored, and works with most soils.

Budagovsky 9 (B 9)

A cross between M 8 and Red Standard, a hardy rootstock of Russian origin. A full dwarf rootstock producing a tree with the same vigor as M 9. Requires staking or other support to keep anchored. Extremely cold hardy and resistant to collar rot. Mildly resistant to powdery mildew and scab, developed at the Michuinsk College of Agriculture in Russia.

EMLA 106

This rootstock produces a tree about half to two-thirds the size of a standard tree. It does not sucker and the rootstock is resistant to wooly aphid. EMLA 106 has been planted intensively in the East and West and is an excellent producer. It should be planted on well-drained soil as it is susceptible to crown rot.
MM 106 – intermediate dwarfing. susceptibility to poorly drained soils and the soil-borne fungal pathogen, Phytopthora cactorum , or Collar Rot.

EMLA 111

EMLA 111 produces a tree about two-thirds the size of a standard tree. Vigorous scion varieties and better soils may grow to three-quarter size or larger. EMLA 111 is a good producing rootstock, is well anchored and tolerant of drought conditions. It is widely adapted to most soil conditions.


EMLA 26 is considered to be smaller than a half size tree. It is about 40 to 45 percent of a standard tree, needs some support in early years, but could be self-supporting in later years. EMLA 26 is very early and heavy bearing. This rootstock is very adaptable for close plantings and double rows.
EM 26 – 40-50% of standard size, more cold-hardy than other dwarfing stock, but susceptible to collar rot. Requires support structure due to shallow roots.


A tree on this rootstock will be 50 to 60 percent smaller than a standard tree. Trees on this clone are the most popular of all the rootstock we grow. EMLA 7 does well on most soils. Some support may be needed in early years. EMLA 7 is very winter hardy. It is susceptible to suckering. EMLA 7 is extremely tolerant to fire blight.
EM 7 – 50% standard, popular, somewhat resistant to collar rot, tends to suckering. Staking may be required.

Geneva 30 (G 30)

This rootstock was developed at the Cornell University breeding program by Dr. Jim Cummings. It makes a tree similar in size to EMLA 7. It is more fireblight resistant than EMLA 7 and produces trees that are more precocious than trees grown on EMLA 7. Recommended for trial planting at this time.

Geneva® 11 (G 11)

A cross of M 26 x Robusta 5 hybrid, G 11 is similar in vigor to EMLA 26. Like ELMA 26 trees grown on G 11 should be supported. Trees of this variety are extremely precocious, productive and more resistant to wooly aphid tan EMLA 26. G 11 is also somewhat resistant to fireblight and collar rot. G 11 also resists suckering.

Malling 9 (M 9)

This is considered to be the full dwarf tree. M 9 should be planted on fertile well-drained soil and requires support. A tree on this root is about 30-35 percent in size compared to a standard tree. In our own orchards, we have had very early and heavy production from M 9 rooted trees. M 9 may not be as winter hardy as those on other dwarfing roots. It can be planted close in double rows.
M 9 – extremely dwarfing, drought sensitive. Avoid because of susceptibility to poorly drained soils and the soil-borne fungal pathogen, Phytopthora cactorum , or Collar Rot.

Nic 29® (RN 29 cv.)

Nic 29® is a Malling 9 type rootstock. It usually exhibits a better root system than Malling 9. Of the various types of Malling 9, Nic 29®  exhibits stronger vigor, yet is still a full dwarf. Trees grown on this root require support. The rootstock is both precocious and productive, usually fruiting in second or third leaf. Fire blight susceptibility is similar to other M 9 strains. Recommended for high density plantings.

Supporter 4™

A cross of M 9 x M 4, Supporter 4™ is a dwarfing apple rootstock similar in vigor to EMLA 26. Anchorage is similar to EMLA 26, and trees on this root should be grown with some sort of support structure. The rootstock is relatively frost resistant. In tests, Supporter 4™ showed better efficiency than both EMLA 26 and EMLA 106.

Root Stocks for Peaches

It seems that Halford and any of the peach-almond hybrid root stocks would be the best for Harper area because of being more suitable for high ph/calcareous soils.
Also see discussion on GardenWeb forum (better to spring prune than to use dwarfing root stock)>

See Root Stock Comparisons

Most Common Root Stocks
  • Halford rootstock, better suited for High Ph soils (Austin, San Antonio, DFW), and any soil where white rock and caliche are prevalent.
    Womack Nursery offers Halford rootstock as alternative.
  • Nemaguard (nematode resistant, vigorous tree, but the most susceptible to calcareous soils) susceptible to root-lesion nematode, prefers sandy soil, susceptible to oak root fungus & bacterial canker, prunes on this rootstock are subject to brown line (Avoid in Harper area)
  • Nemared (nematode resistant)
  • Lovell – “This seed-grown standard peach rootstock has proven dependable and may develop a longer lived tree with better disease resistance and hardiness than other peach root stocks,” according to Raintree Nursery in Oregon. Easily maintained at 12 – 15′
  • Guardian rootstock is tolerant of PTSL (Peach Tree Short Life) PTSL is caused by a combination of factors including cold damage, bacterial canker, and ring nematodes and exacerbated by various management practices such as early pruning and insufficient liming of acid soils. It typically causes the sudden collapse of the tree in spring. In recent years this has been a major problem in the southeastern peach growing areas. It is available from several of the nurseries in Tennessee and has been heavily planted in since it was released in 1994.
  • Viking™ (patented) interspecific peach, almond, plum & apricot – rooted cutting, vigorous, root-knot nematode resistance similar to Nemaguard, productive, precocious tree, increases fruit size, considered well anchored, less susceptible to bacterial canker than seedling rootstocks, tolerant of wet soil conditions, tolerant of saline and alkaline soil conditions, intolerant of dehydration in transplanting.
    A new and distinct interspecific rootstock tree having the following unique combination of outstanding features that are desirable in a new rootstock variety:1. The ability to develop roots from dormant cuttings when planted in the field.2. Produces little to no root suckers.3. Rapid rooting and growth of the cuttings in the field, facilitates early spring budding of peaches and almonds.4. Vigorous upright growth.5. Well anchored, deep root system.6. Has scion compatibility with Almonds (Prunus amygdalus) and Peaches (Prunus persica)
    Cons Trees on peach x almond hybrid rootstocks, including interspecifics, are very sensitive to dehydration. While planting, keep roots damp. Irrigate after planting.
  • Atlas interspecific (patented) peach, almond, plum; apricot-rooted cutting
    Pros extremely vigorous, root-knot nematode resistance similar to Nemaguard, productive, increases fruit size, considered well anchored, tolerant of saline and alkaline soil conditions.    
    Cons delays fruit maturity in some varieties, intolerant of wet soil conditions, intolerant of dehydration in transplanting.
Other Root Stocks
  • Flordaguard, a low-chill, nematode-resistant rootstock developed in Florida
Peach-Almond Hybrid Root Stocks
  • Red Leaf Titan Hybrid and –  peach-almond hybrid, tolerant of calcareous soils, extremely vigorous, may have root-knot nematode resistance, considered well anchored, tolerant of calcareous soil conditions, trees may be excessively vigorous on good soil, may delay maturity of fruit, more susceptible to crown rot than peach seedling rootstocks, intolerant of wet soil conditions
  • Green Leaf Titan Hybrid – peach-almond hybrid, tolerant of calcareous soils, as Red Leaf Titan Hybrid.
  • Hansen – peach-almond hybrid, tolerant of calcareous soils 1

This from
Most peaches are budded onto seedling plants. sometimes from named varietiel sources with special traits such as Nemaguard, but often on seed leftover from the processing industry in California. Some of the seed sold as Halford is probably from this source, rather than from the actual variety Halford, which is an old canning variety. Another standard, Lovell, was originally a drying peach so seed was cheap.
True to type seed comes from a budded or grafted tree of the rootstock variety. If you get a seed from Lovell or Nemaguard, grow it to fruiting, and save the seed, it likely will be similar to the parent, but not identical. Usually this is good enough, but for traits like nematode resistance, you cannot be sure you still have the trait. Most peaches are self-fertile, so most of the seed off a tree will be self-pollinated, especially if there are several trees together of the same variety.

Most of the available seed of Lovell, Nemaguard and Nemared is used by commercial nurseries so it rarely is available in the seed business. Since the “mother trees” are only grown for seed purposes, the resulting seed is expensive relative to seed that is a by product. Some nurseries maintain their own virus-free mother blocks to produce their own seed of known origin.

For standard rootstocks like Lovell and Nemaguard, budwood can be obtained from research stations so you can grow your own “mother trees” of the true cultivar. Mother trees are not available to buy because there is little or no demand for them, but they would be legal to sell. A few stocks like Guardian are protected and can only be grown by licensed nurseries. Royalties from these trees aid in supporting the research programs that developed Guardian.

Root Stock for Almonds


Nematode resistant. Good anchorage & excellent vigor. Prefers well drained, sandy loam soil. Very sensitive to wet feet or heavy soils. Very little suckering.

Good anchorage and vigor. Prefers well drained loam soil. Sensitive to wet feet or heavy soils. Very little suckering.

Titan (Peach almond hybrid)
Peach/almond hybrid. Excellent anchorage and vigor. Prefers sandy loam soil. Very large, vigorous trees. Very sensitive to wet soil conditions

Marianna 26-24
Plum rootstock. Shallow roots. Good vigor, slightly dwarf trees. Medium to heavy soil. Common for heavy soils that tend to be wet. Heavy suckering. Resistant to prune brownline.

Hansen 536
A University of California selection of peach/almond hybrid. A popular high-vigor almond rootstock with good anchorage and found to be more tolerant of salinity, alkalinity, ph, and boron soils. Moderate resistance to root-knot nematodes, but not phytophthora. Requires very well-drained soils.

Krymsk®86 (USPP #16272) Downloadable PDF
Peach/plum hybrid. Tree size similar to Lovell. Tolerant to wet and heavy soils. Cold hardy and high PH tolerance. Precocious. Increases fruit size and yield with strong root system. Performs well on replant sites.

Bright’s Hybrid® 5 (Peach almond hybrid) Downloadable PDF
A University of California selection of peach/almond hybrid. A popular high-vigor almond rootstock with good anchorage and found to be more tolerant of salinity, alkalinity, ph, and boron soils. Moderate resistance to root-knot nematodes, but not phytophthora. Requires very well-drained soils.

Empyrean® 1 Downloadable PDF
Empyrean® 1 is a peach hybrid with extraordinary vigor. This rootstock has a lower chilling requirement than Hansen 536, making it useful in low chill conditions sometimes experienced in California. Bloom timing is similar to Hansen 536. The vigor of Empyrean® 1 results in quick space-filling and rapid increases in production. High almond production in early years has not sacrificed nut size. Empyrean® 1 shows promise of being one of the best high yielding almond rootstocks available for well drained soils

Root Stock for Citrus

trees on Carrizo do not perform well in calcareous soils.

Root Stock for Pears and quinces

List of Pear varieties compatible with Quince rootstock:
Nearly 100, but many are so rare. . .

Corvalis has a lot of really great pear lists and other linked resources:

Name of rootstock: Quince C (dwarfing)
Suitable for: Cordon, bush, central leader
Start fruiting: After four years
Ultimate height as trained as bush: 2.5-3m (6-10ft)
Growing conditions: Fertile, moisture retentive soil
Staking: Permanently
Spacing: 3m (6-10ft)

Name of rootstock: Quince A (semi-vigorous)
Suitable for: Fan, cordon, bush, central leader, half-standard, espalier
Start fruiting: After four years
Ultimate height as trained as bush: 3-4.5m (10-15ft)
Growing conditions: Most medium to heavy fertile soils
Staking: Retain for five years
Spacing: 3-4.5m (10-15ft)


Scionwood for Apples, Plums & Pears (Wisconson)

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